Physical Science: Heat and Temperature

Learning Outcome 7.1:

Assess the Impact of part and current heating and cooling technologies on self, society, and the environment.


a) Describe examples of developments in science and technologies that arise from an individual's need for heating and cooling of clothing, food, and the shelter.

b) Compare, in qualitative terms, the heat capacities of some common materials, including water, and explain how understanding heat capacity influences choices of materials used in the development of technologies related to clothing, food, and shelter.
c) Illustrate the historical development and scientific principles of technologies that address practical problems regarding human heating and cooling needs for food, shelter, and clothing (e.g., oven mitts, survival suits, air conditioning, central heating, thermos, refrigerators, stoves, heaters, and home insulation.)

d) Communicate questions, idea, intentions, plans, and results of inquiries related to heat transmission using lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables, graphs, drawings, oral language, and other means.

e) Analyze the impact of the design and function of a heating or cooling related technology on self and society.

f) Use a technological problem solving process to design, construct, and evaluate a prototype of a device that will provide a solution to a practical problem related to heating or cooling (e.g., cooking food, keeping food warm or cool for an extended period, keeping a shelter warm or cool, keeping a person warm or cool).

g) Assess the design of a personally constructed heating or cooling prototype using collaboratively developed criteria.

h) Provide examples of problems related to heating and cooling that arise at home, in an industrial setting, or in the environment, that cannot be solved using scientific and technological knowledge.

i) Identify science and technology based careers in the community related to heating and cooling, such as heating systems and equipment contractors, and boiler engineers.

Learning Outcome 7.2

Explain how understanding differences between states of matter and the effect of heat on changes in state provide evidence for the particle theory.

a) Provide examples from daily life that illustrate the effects of heating cooling on solids, liquids, and gases.

b) Investigate the effects of changes in temperature on solids, liquids and gases.

c) Construct and label a heating curve for water, using student-collected data, indicating states of matter and changes of state.

d) Create a visual or dramatic representation to explain changes of state of matter (e.g., melting, freezing, evaporation, donensation, and sublimation) according to the particle theory of matter.

e) Use instruments (e.g. alcohol thermometer, temperature probe, and the thermocouple) safely, effectively, and accurately for collecting temperature data.

f) Trace the historical development of different scales and instruments used to measure temperature ( e.g. liquid-in-glass- thermometers, bi-metallic strips, digital thermometers, liquid crystal thermometers, thermocouples, and computer sensors) and discuss the need for standardized measurements of temperature.

g) Distinguish between heat and temperature using the concept of kinetic energy and the particle model of matter.

Learning Outcome 7.3

Investigate heat transfer via conduction, convection, and radiation.

a) Demonstrate and explain how heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation in solids, liquids, and gases.

b) Construct a visual or dramatic representation of heat transfer via conduction in a solid.

c) Model convection currents in a fluid (liquid or gas).

d) Provide examples of conduction, convection, and radiation in the natural and constructed world (e.g., heating over cities, temperature layers in lakes, thunderstorms, radiant heaters, refrigerators, and convection currents in air or water).

e) Evaluate potential applications of technologies related to heat transfer via conduction, convection, or radiation.

f) Design and carry out an experiment to determine differences in the ability of various surfaces to absorb and reflect radiant heat.

g) Select appropriate methods and tools for collecting and displaying data and information related to radiant heat.

h) Demonstrate safe and responsible work practices, including keeping the work are uncluttered with only appropriate materials present when investigating heat transfer vis conduction, convection, and radiation.

i) Explain how evidence gathered while investigating heat transfer supports or refutes the particle theory of matter ( e.g., explain how the evidence of convection currents in fluids supports the particle model of matter).